Zebrafish are widely used in research due to their numerous beneficial properties. ‘Stages in the Development of a Model Organism as a Platform for Mechanistic Models in Developmental Biology: Zebrafish, 1970–2000’. In this chapter author summarizes some of the recent advances in the area of zebrafish research, viz., developmental biology, toxicology, transgenic studies, human disease, drug discovery, cancer, etc. By 72 h, the embryo hatches out from the eggshell and within the next 2 days starts hunting for food. Much of the pioneer works that established zebrafish as a model organism were done by George Streisinger, Charles Kimmel, and their colleagues [13]. Advantages of using Zebrafish as a Model Organism. The process of target identification involves the recognition of target gene or protein which when modulated by a drug can have positive effects on the progression of disease. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Highly conserved cancer pathways can be screened genetically using zebrafish. This review is by no means a comprehensive one but an attempt to provide a flavor to the readers some recent advances about this wonderful creature to use in potential researches. Since young zebrafish are transparent, scientists can now see some of the most crucial life processes as they happen. Native to South Asia, it is a popular aquarium fish, frequently sold under the trade name zebra danio (and thus often called a " tropical fish " although both tropical and subtropical). Another group of researchers proposed to use a transgenic model for high-throughput testing of small molecules that modulate the heart rate of the zebrafish embryo [102]. It is only 50 years later after an increased rise of interest for zebrafish as an animal model that George Streisinger began a genetic screen of zebrafish using gamma-rays to cause random mutations in … Treatment with terfenadine and clomipramine caused severe impairment of cardiac functions, edema, hemorrhage, arrested heartbeat, and even death. The vascular system of tumor has always been the target of antitumor therapies; it is evident from research and clinical observations that if angiogenesis inhibitors are used in combination with chemotherapy, it can improve the outcome in cancer patients [69]. cSCC accounts for the most frequent type of non-melanoma cutaneous cancer and constitutes about 20% of all skin malignancies [75, 76]. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Studies involving Zebrafish have been important in many fields of research including oncology, regeneration and particularly embryonic development. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. By using zebrafish, the suppressing or promoting factors for metastasis can be identified. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a Model Organism, Current Trends in Cancer Management, Liliana Streba, Dan Ionut Gheonea and Michael Schenker, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81517. Xenotransplantation represents another novel way to induce tumor in zebrafish. The zebrafish disease models are being used in various infections of aquaculture, for instance, tuberculosis and streptococcal and salmonella infections [114]. The vascular network is helpful to transport oxygen and nutrients to the cells; likewise tumor cells also get the supply of all these materials. Vascular anatomy development of zebrafish using molecular tracers during early embryonic stages has high level of similarities with other vertebrates [1, 32, 33]. Hepatic gene expression in humans and zebrafish has revealed conservation of gene expression profiles at different stages of tumor aggressiveness between these two phylogenetically distant species [66, 67]. The embryos of zebrafish were utilized to compare the developmental toxicity resulting from the exposure to ethanol or acetaldehyde [95]. Afterward, feel free to mingle with other guests and the speaker, or spend time visiting our museum. The use of zebrafish as a model organism got impetus from the 1990s when it was used to develop two large genetic mutants, one by Nobel Prize winner Christiane Nusslein-Volhard in Tubingen, Germany, and the other by Wolfgang Driever and Mark Fishman in Boston, USA. The team of these researchers studied the embryonic axis, cell lineage analysis, embryonic formation, development of central and peripheral nervous systems, muscle development, differential regulation of gene expression, etc. In addition, the zebrafish is increasingly used as a genetic model organism for aquaculture species and in toxicogenomics and also to generate zebrafish disease models for application in human biomedicines. Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel ABSTRACT The zebrafish has become a model of choice in fundamental and applied life sciences and is widely used in various fields of biomedical research as a human disease model for cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, and regenerative medicine.The tr ansparency of the ze - The zebrafish is a very hard fish and is very easy to raise. [94] developed a test in which susceptible zebrafish was used to detect small molecule-induced mutagenesis. The zebrafish as an alternative model for angiogenesis and regeneration studies provides the relevance of in vivo assays with simplicity and versatility of in vitro assays. can be assessed directly. It is achieved through interaction between endothelial cells and their niche. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Dr Caroline Brennan, from Queen Mary University of London, tells the NC3Rs the top five reasons why zebrafish are her model of choice. The historical development of zebrafish as a model organism can be understood as passing through three stages, which seem to be distinguishable in a similar manner in the histories of many other … Therefore, we can finally achieve direct monitoring and early warnings of endocrine disruptors with this model organism. Among all the zebrafish proved best for investigating embryogenesis, organogenesis, and impact of environmental carcinogen for the development of cancer [64]. The endothelial cells of the vascular system can be stained by fluorescent dye/protein that helps to visualize the neovascularization of tiny tumor at the earliest stage, and metastasizing tumor cells can be tracked explicitly at cellular level [7]. A variety of fishes have been used as model to study tumors induced by environmental carcinogens. This has increased concerns associated with potential toxicity of nanoproducts to humans and the environments. Here, we review some achievements of zebrafish-based assays for modeling human diseases and for drug discovery and development. Due to the toxicity problem, many new drugs have been declined by the FDA. Adult zebrafish are small in size, they grow quickly, and they breed readily. The use of Zebrafish as a model organism was pioneered at the University of Oregon,U.S.A. Each chapter focuses on a species that is either now a model organism or that was once a promising candidate but ultimately failed to gain long-term acceptance among researchers. Especially oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for about 24% of HNSCC with a mortality rate of 2 million deaths every year [76, 78]. Photograph 01 George Streisinger. These features make this fish an attractive model organism for developmental, toxicological, and transgenic studies [12]. Thus, zebrafish is a suitable model for preliminary screening of molecules which have potential therapeutic or toxic effects. In larvae, access to developing vasculature through fluorophore-tagged strains and small size of zebrafish makes the use of high-throughput strategies possible. ... JPS welcomes a panel of industry leaders for a virtual discussion about the development and commercialization of nonanimal foods. Toxicity of antirheumatic drug like diclofenac was evaluated by using zebrafish. D. Rario is preferred by scientists because of its variety of features that make it useful as a model organism. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Tumorigenesis is a multistep process induced by chemical carcinogen [52], with accumulation of both epigenetic aberrations and mutations in regulatory regions of genes and disorder of signaling pathways [53, 54]. It takes place in two parallel chains along the length of the developing gut [25, 27, 28]. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) are a small‐bodied tropical, freshwater fish species originally from South Asia. The adult zebrafish attains sexual maturity very quickly, having generation time of about 10 weeks, and also this tiny fish has good fecundity rate. Primarily cancer is a disease of adults, but through mutagenesis screens, cell cycle phenotype could be examined in rapidly developing transparent embryos of the zebrafish. Since they are naturally found in ponds, their ideal conditions can be easily replicated. The adaptive immune system in larvae of zebrafish usually develops after 14 DPF, which provides very conducive environment for survival of transplanted cancer cells and metastasis [81], and the process of tumor metastasis can be observed through the transparent body of zebrafish under microscope. In zebrafish larvae the vessels and blood flow can easily be visualized by using simple dissecting microscope and also by using fluorescent proteins; the development of the blood vascular system could be examined in great details. Zebrafish embryos are used as predictive model to assess the toxicity in mammals. In coming years, an increased number of reports are expected on the application of zebrafish as an effective bioindicator. When kept under optimal conditions, the zebrafish can lay about 200 eggs per week [9, 10]. Establishing the Zebrafish Model It is against this backdrop that George Streisinger, a professor in the nascent Institute of Molecular Biology at the University of Oregon, chose zebrafish, Danio rerio, a small, tropical, fresh-water fish, as a model in which to explore the genetic basis of vertebrate neural development. Admission is free, and no reservations are necessary. The most important feature of xenotransplantation is that tumor cells can be stained/marked by fluorescent stain that distinguishes transplanted cells from normal cells and helps in clear observation of developmental process of the tumor [68]. The embryo develops very fast, and the blastula stage lasts only for 3 h, while gastrulation gets completed in 5 h; in an embryo that is about 18 h old, very well developed ears, eyes, segmenting muscles, and brain can be viewed as the embryo is transparent. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. Many biomedical breakthroughs owe their discovery to advances in the tools and methods scientists use, especially model organisms. The same approach was adopted to compare the development of blood and lymphatic vasculatures in zebrafish [35]. At the time, several groups were investigating the genetic basis of development in flies and worms. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Learn more >>. 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