Much more. This is very important. Lady Onslow with hospital patients at Clandon Park (Photo credit: National Trust, Clandon Park). Bell was drawn to the Middle East. During the war, the British and the French held secret negotiations. After 1918 Britain gained territory from Germany in Africa making British rule continuous from Cape Town to the Suez Canal and they pro… Gertrude Bell studied history at Oxford and embarked on a career as a writer, traveler and archaeologist. Gertrude Bell possibly circa 1914 (Photo credit: Gertrude Bell Archive, Newcastle University). Britain seized Iraq from Ottoman Turkey during World War I and was granted a mandate by the League of Nations to govern the nation in 1920. In the circumstances of 1914, Bell knew she could and should be doing more; not least because it was clear that this War was going to have a significant front in the Middle East, an area she knew better, and at first-hand, than most politicians and many military strategists. Her younger brother Maurice, a Sandhurst-trained army officer in his younger years, was no longer a professional soldier; but like many men of his generation he was keen to serve again and get over to France. Bell made many historical discoveries and donated most of her collection of ancient treasures to the Baghdad Archeological museum, … She knew that he would understand the reasons for her determination to go to France, just as he was being asked to understand Maurice’s. Britain started the war ruling the biggest empire the world had ever seen and ended up with it even bigger. She was the first woman to graduate from Oxford with a first-class degree in Modern History, an accomplished mountaineer and a linguist. Gertrude Bell’s experience of war work in the south of England and in France was brief, but formative. Gertrude Bell at the Cairo Conference, 1921 - delegates included Churchill (seated, hat on knee) and T E Lawrence (standing behind to his left, in mufti) (Credit: Gertrude Bell Photographic Archive, Newcastle University). Jordan - Jordan - Transjordan, the Hāshimite Kingdom, and the Palestine war: During World War I the Arabs joined the British against the Ottomans. It’s an unkind letter from Bell’s hand, but it was borne of exasperation. Yet, as independent as we know Bell to have been, she also appears to have been affected by the absence of her maid Marie, whom she had left behind at Sloane Street with the expectation that she would shortly travel back to the family seat in Yorkshire. The fact of the matter is that prior to getting herself to France, she was stuck doing very little in a hospital that had been established in the grand house of Lord and Lady Onslow at Clandon Park, where she arrived on the 10th November 1914. I shall cross by the afternoon boat on Monday. Oct 5, 2016 - Historical Picture of Winston Churchill, Gertrude Bell, T. E. Lawrence 1921 Gertrude Bell along with her colleague Lawrence and Cox were part of a group of ‘Orientalists’ specially selected by Winston Churchill to represent British interests at the 1921 Conference in Cairo to determine the boundaries of the British Mandate. I'll write tomorrow to you. And thank you for reading about the remarkable Gertrude Bell. Gertrude’ (Letters, 21 November 2014). Read honest and … Official record of Gertrude Bell’s service as a secretary in the Missing and Wounded Enquiry Dept, France, showing her entitlement to the decoration of a Star (Source: Ancestry.com). Poster published by the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, London. I know it is at home. I will send her the silk shirt as a pattern as soon as it comes back from the wash. Gertrude Bell possibly circa 1914 (Photo credit: Gertrude Bell Archive, Newcastle University) Gertrude Bell’s experience of war work in the south of England and in France was brief, but formative. In the picture: Coronation of Faisal in Baghdad, 1921. My address till I tell you anything else will be Headquarters British Red X Boulogne. Very stupid and careless of her. As soon as I know where I can lodge I will give you that address. Well versed in the lands and cultures of Mesopotamia, Bell put her knowledge to work for the British government during World War I. As a powerful official of the British administration in Baghdad after the first world war, Bell ensured that an Arab state was founded from the three Ottoman provinces of … After the war ended, she was instrumental in … Gertrude Bell did not herself make mittens - a Mrs Jones did the knitting - but she made regular financial donations toward their provision. The posters and the newspaper reports of what was unfolding across the Channel in 1914 became an ingrained part of the visual landscape of Gertrude Bell’s world. After residing briefly in a hospital in England but debarred from any actual nursing due to a lack of training combined with her social position, Gertrude Bell arrived in France on the 23rd November 1914 nearly four months after the outbreak of the Great War. The British campaigns against Ottoman Turkey, which form the background to this period in Gertrude Bell’s life, tend to be neglected in comparison with events in Europe. The only major loss was England's oldest colony Ireland, next door, who had been ruled by England since the 1200s when King Henry 2nd was asked by an Irish war lord to come and make peace between the warring local chiefs. A new reality began to bite in many ways. In mentioning her ‘powers’, she was reminding her father of her experiences and skills in other places in difficult circumstances. Whom did Gertrude Bell assist in the effort to foment the Arab rebellion against the Ottoman Empire? She had studied not just the geography of the region but also the politics of the ‘tribes’. Gertrude Bell (1868-1926), linguist, diplomat and spy, responsible for relations with the Arab population. I shall need it if I go abroad. Gertrude Bell was exploring and shaping the Middle East. A favour had been granted by her well-connected friend Harold Russell (of the aristocratic Russell family - cousin of Bertrand Russell): Darling Father. Bored and frustrated at Clandon Park Hospital in the south of England - which has been, to date, a little-discussed episode in her life - with no role to speak of except taking round reading materials to wounded Belgian troops, she maneuvered her way over to France to fill a secretarial position. At that time she was involved in a consuming emotional affair with professional military officer Lt. Col. Charles ‘Dick’ Doughty-Wylie, whom she had met some years previously in Turkey. These experiences in France were to change Gertrude Bell’s outlook on life forever. Bearing in mind her knowledge that the troops needed the basics like gloves, and wounded troops were arriving daily in England for medical treatment, and young men were dying, it is on the surface an extraordinary letter to have sent to her step-mother Florence: ‘Friday 95 Sloane Street. I shall want her to make the flannel shirt quickly. Mulhall, America, 66. I want it sent to Dibdins to be cleaned, and returned by them here. In 1915 Gertrude was invited to join the newly formed Arab Bureau in Cairo. This knowledge was to be of great value. No. Gertrude Bell, first secretary of the Women’s League, was a great admirer of Lord Cromer and herself a distinguished expert on the Middle East, where she helped establish the post-war British mandate over Iraq. Gertrude Bell could in fact be quite self-effacing when writing about herself to others, especially her step-mother, but this letter was to her father about something that really mattered to her. Lawrence (the famous "Lawrence of Arabia") and helped formulate the British strategy of encouraging the Arabs to revolt against the Turks. Gertrude Bell (far left) among the delegates of the Mespot Commission at the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt, c. 1921. Dearest Mother. Detail of the WW1 army record of Lt Col Maurice Bell, Gertrude’s younger brother (Source: Ancestry.com). The watch she sent here is not the right one. KEY INFORMATION: Gertrude Bell was born in . How and why did Gertrude Bell die in Baghdad? It was how this brilliant woman was socialised, with all its pros and cons. Her letters to Dick at this time were lyrical and intense. She was 46 years old and had been through exploits of her own. However, once the British were embroiled in World War I, and particularly during 1916, ... Iraq and Gertrude Bell‘s The Arab of Mesopotamia (Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2008), 150. Gertrude Bell - in Search of the ‘Real Woman’. 2. This would please her; and she knew it would please her father. It looks as if I were pretty sure of a job presently and what he suggests sounds well suited to my powers. During the war, she invented the Ayrton Fan, a device that helped soldiers clear poisonous gas from their trenches. It is a gunmetal one in a green leather wrist band. She heard the shelling on the front line. I'll write from London. It's rather exciting isn't it! Indeed Bell appears to have struggled in her new environment to the point of irascibility. She had observed and noted these peoples’ relationships with each other as well as their entanglements with the Arab elites and foreign overlords; and she well understood the competing interests of the western powers and the ruling Ottoman Empire. Pers B 3). The British intelligence bureau in Cairo hired Bell as an advisor on Arabia. It’s an intriguing story, able to be told primarily because we have her surviving letters as a central part of the archive. Turkey was retreating into it's borders. She was the only woman in the area to have an official role in politics during World War I, working towards creating the country that would become Iraq. Might they get away to London for some short time together, she suggested to him in a letter. Bell, while there, awkwardly met with Lilian (‘Judith’) Doughty-Wylie, the experienced, respected field nurse who was the wife of the man she hoped to marry; had an epiphany about life being too short; set up a filing system to help distraught relatives better trace missing and wounded boys and young men; and came home just a few months later. Fed up with her circumstances, she was pinning her hopes on a position in France. It began just a few months after the outbreak of the Great War in the summer of 1914. Bell’s letters show that she was languishing and becoming frustrated: ‘I have been sorting and distributing French novels all the afternoon after hanging about and doing nothing most of the morning.’ (Letters, 12 November 1914), ‘I haven't yet enough to do to fill in my day. In addition the oil resources of the Middle East were becoming increasingly important. We collect and match historical records that Ancestry users have contributed to their family trees to create each person’s profile. Gertrude Bell, an archaeologist, linguist and writer who had travelled extensively in the Middle East, was recruited in World War One to Britain's Arab Bureau in Cairo. Lawrence, the Arabs severed the Hejaz Railway. Marie did not send the blue brocade gown here as I told her to do. Learn meanwhile with free interactive flashcards. ... "And so very hastily Faisal was made King of Iraq and Gertrude Bell designed a very nice coronation for him," MacMillan says. Use the links and questions below to learn more about Gertrude Bell and her legacy. The British were determined to protect the Suez Canal which was vital for communications between India and Britain. I want a gunmetal watch in a green wrist band. A Hashemite monarchy was … I have a telegram this morning from Boulogne asking whether they can count on me on Sunday or Monday. Like most wars, World War 1 began with a declaration - the 4th August 1914 for the British - and moved swiftly on to repeated call-ups of young men and an appeal for voluntary service from the rest of the population. Harold Russell had found her a post as a secretary. He was descended from slaves taken from West Africa but English was his first… Might she see Dick there, Gertrude wondered. Read the enclosed from Harold Russell and send it on to Mother. She continued to work for the British Government in a variety of posts throughout the war, moving from Cairo to Basra, and eventually to Baghdad. Lilian wanted to talk, and there could be only one subject. Despite being able to wear the Red Cross uniform, conflicts of ‘authority’ barred Gertrude Bell from any actual nursing, she lamented in a letter: ‘They won't let me go into the wards to do any nursing on the ground that I shall not be able to keep authority over people who during some hours of the day would be in authority over me. It finally came on the 21st November: ‘Clandon Park Hospital, Guildford. He was wounded in January 1916 but survived, and eventually became the 3rd Bell family baronet.) She wrote briefly to Florence while passing through Sloane Street on the way to Boulogne, and whilst the watch was once again mentioned, there was a small joke attached: Marie has not sent my watch. In the meantime, she would go to France. The project's first recruit is Lionel Turpin ( 1896-1929) Mentioned in Stephen Bourne's book, Black Poppies: Britain's Black Community and the Great War, (2014), quoting from Jackie Turpin's book while talking about his father, Lionel Turpin, Jack says: He felt British. Within a year Gertrude Bell was called to the Middle East to serve the British administration – where, in Baghdad, after a series of notable geo-political accomplishments, she died just a decade later by her own hand. The fate of the Belgians in the early months of the Great War was employed to great effect in the recruitment drive that was to chew up a generation of young men - and it also helped to drive the civilian war effort. When war broke out in Europe in August 1914, Turkey, which then controlled all of the Middle East, joined Germany in the fight against Great Britain. Once abroad, she would need her most resilient watch. I always wear it hunting. She became friends with T.E. I'm sorry because I should have liked to have had some sort of experience of all kinds and also because I haven't yet enough to do to fill in my day.’ (Letters, 15th November 1914). ‘Her way’ was to secure some sort of position in France. Increasing tension across Europe resulted in the Great War breaking out... meanwhile, elsewhere…. Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell, CBE (14 July 1868 – 12 July 1926) was an English writer, traveller, political officer, administrator, and archaeologist who explored, mapped, and became highly influential to British imperial policy-making due to her knowledge and contacts, built up through extensive travels in Syria-Palestine, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Arabia. She was frequently in search of parental approval, even into her forties, and indeed up to her death. Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom. Lilian had operated field hospitals previously in Turkey for victims of the first Armenian massacre, and was an invaluable asset near the war front. It’s an intriguing story, able to be told primarily because we have her surviving letters as a central part of the … (Letters, 17th November 1914), Gertrude Bell and her formidable gaze (Credit: Gertrude Bell Archive, Newcastle University - Cat. You fill my cup, this shallow cup that has grown so deep to hold your love & mine. [p.s.] She first travelled in the Middle East in .She was called by many in the Middle East. However they were of great strategic importance. She understandably wanted and needed to do more. WW1 World War I had an enormous impact on Gertrude Bell, changing her life dramatically. Indeed, she would be there even before her brother Maurice. Having arrived on the 23rd November, by the 25th Bell was able to write that she had begun the work of improving the index system of registering dead, missing and wounded; and dealing with the relatives of the young men. Bell’s personal war effort had seemed far more promising in terms of her potential contribution at the outset. England had ruled them for the next 700 years. Gertrude Bell’s caravan (men and camels), Syria December 1913 (photo credit: Gertrude Bell Archive, Newcastle University - Cat. She could ride horseback for days; and was an accomplished mountaineer. I have filled all the hollow places of this world with my desire for you; it floods out, measureless to creep up the high mountains where you live.’ (Gertrude to Dick - Letters, 30 December 1914). But yes, thank me for it, as you say, with love & trust & confidence. Dearest when you tell me you love me & want me still, my heart sings - & then weeps for longing to be with you. Over 100,000 were issued to British troops and they were in constant use from May 1916 onwards. In 1915 Gertrude was invited to join the newly formed Arab Bureau in Cairo. I am going to London this afternoon in time to go to the Red X and see Arthur Stanley if possible. Choose from 52 different sets of meanwhile flashcards on Quizlet. It was on my dressing table the morning I left Rounton. When I asked her for it here she replied that she could not find it and took no further trouble … [Note on back of envelope] I have found my watch - at the bottom of the linen drawer!’ (Letters, 22 November 1914), (I actually felt quite relieved for Marie reading the end-note of that letter.). What did Bell do in Basra in 1916? This was the woman who had made extraordinary journeys in the Middle East and Arabia in the years prior to the Great War, commanding desert caravans and mapping the terrain with great precision. The development of their relationship was complicated. She was … As she packed for France in the London apartment, however, she became - if we regard the infamous watch as a barometer of her state of mind - increasingly anxious once more, and her irascibility returned; and by the following day she uncharacteristically sounds practically disorganised: ‘The watch is not here and Marie knows perfectly well that it is not. (His request was granted and Lt. Col Maurice Bell left for France in April 1915, where he would see action on the front line. It began just a few months after the outbreak of the Great War in the summer of 1914. Gertrude Bell’s father Hugh awaited instructions regarding his industrial businesses. This was a sadly deft prognosis. Here she worked alongside Middle East specialists, including T.E. Bell had the social rank to be ‘in charge’ of the big house in Lady Onslow’s absence; but in the context of a military-grade hospital, her nursing skills were insufficient and would place her on the bottom rung of the ladder. At first glance, Bell’s reference to ‘her powers’ might seem just a tad arrogant, possibly even conceited, but she was simply stating a fact. But in the Middle East today, the desert warrior’s legacy is written in sand With British troops currently active in Iraq, Derek Hopwood unravels the two countries' shared history, and reflects on other periods when British troops have been on Iraqi soil. She had visited Sloane Street on the 20th November, and been displeased with what she found (or didn’t find) there. I should like it posted to Boulogne. Furthermore, Bell, having left her French lady’s maid Marie Delaere behind in London at the Bell family’s apartment at 95 Sloane Street, would need to organise her own daily dressing and laundry, and she decided she needed not just the right clothes but a lot more of them: ‘Dearest Mother … I am to be inducted into my jobs tomorrow morning, but I haven't got nearly enough Red X clothes, for I shall have to wear them all the time, and I am going to London tomorrow for an hour or two in the afternoon to get more.’ (Letters, 10th November 1914). And then, just ten weeks later, Dick’s wife Lilian Doughty-Wylie left her nearby field hospital and made the journey to Gertrude Bell’s office. The True Story of Lawrence of Arabia His daring raids in World War I made him a legend. In 1916 Bell was sent to Basra in Iraq as an assistant political officer. The group was set up by Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill to … Bell awaited firm confirmation and instructions about her post in Boulogne, France. She drew the borders of Iraq, helped install its first king and established the Baghdad Museum of Antiquities which … Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Gertrude Bell: Queen of the Desert, Shaper of Nations (First American Edition) at Amazon.com. Nursing was now a professional role and even the junior rank, the ‘VADs’ (Voluntary Aid Detachment), were required to undergo training. She is really abominably careless. Paris Peace Conference (1919–20), the meeting that inaugurated the international settlement after World War I. Ladies such as Gertrude Bell, her step-mother Florence, and her sisters Molly and Elsa were expected to assist Red Cross efforts, which they did with diligence from the start of the War, notably in the organisation of large quantities of mittens (knitted woollen gloves) for the troops. Historical Person Search Search Search Results Results Gertrude Bell (1880 - 1964) Try FREE for 14 days Try FREE for 14 days How do we create a person’s profile? The topmost photograph from the Gertrude Bell Archive at Newcastle University is Catalogue Number Pers B 5, photo taken between 1914 and 1926. It’s what she described to Dick as ‘the horror’; and, with her old nemesis loneliness wrapping itself around her mind during those long evenings and nights, she missed him with worn-out desperation and battled it with a fierce, poetic, quasi-biblical passion: ‘Tonight came your beloved letter of Dec 3 thanking me for my book & for my love. Bell was not expecting her arrival, and hastily invited her to lunch. Lady Jersey was president of the female imperialist Victoria League as well as of the Women’s National Anti-Suffrage League. Lady Onslow was the hospital’s official Commandant, and wore full a Red Cross uniform when on duty, as was Bell expected to do. It would be very interesting wouldn't it. Lawrence, in attempts to destabilise the Ottoman Empire and encourage an Arab uprising. Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi (Arabic: فيصل بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي , Fayṣal al-Awwal ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933) was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq from 23 August 1921 to 1933. Her subsequent detailed, valuable report - her first such official report for the British Government - found its way to the desk of Sir Edward Grey. Tell her is is not here with my curses (Letters, 21 November 1914). It’s as though in a time of utter turmoil she was craving some sort of inevitability. May I please give you some orders for Marie. Nov 21 1914. The only woman to have any significant role in the peace settlements, Gertrude Bell, arrived … But since then, it had been mittens for dispatch and reading materials for convalescent troops in an English hospital. Her role in the Great War, however, began in far humbler circumstances. Clandon Park was no amateur set-up: it was a formally recognised auxiliary military hospital, with a relatively large medical staff and an operating theatre. She met the devastated parents of the dead, the missing and the wounded, and looked into their faces. Dick’s wife Lilian (aka ‘Judith’) was an extremely accomplished nurse, working in France in a private hospital that she herself had established. Bell was made a CBE for her work during and after World War One in the creation of Transjordan and Iraq. ), Polyandry in Late Iron Age & Roman Britain, PhD thesis on R-B Villas - detailed contents, Gertrude Bell's World War 1 - Beginnings, ← Gertrude Bell 1914-15 - Christmas in France, a New Year in Purgatory, Gertrude Bell - in Search of the 'Real Woman' →. But perhaps if I wait patiently I may yet get my way’ (Letters, 15 November 1914). So I've said I'll go Monday. It was at this time that she began working closely with Sir Percy Cox, the chief British political officer in Mesopotamia. Y1). Fluent in Persian and Arabic, Bell worked for the British government … I do wonder if Bell was also trying on some level to ‘prove her worth’ to Dick, to elevate herself in his eyes, in order that she might be able to write to him of their shared war experiences as a form of intimacy that would entwine them further. Dearest Mother. 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