It is rather unlikely that Drake seized potatoes from the Spanish when there was more valuable cargo to be had, but the period after his return from South America in the autumn of 1573 is an obscure one in his life. Sir Walter Ralegh, Sir Francis Drake and John Hawkins, have all been credited with introducing the potato into Europe. The Frenchman Charles d’Écluse, or Clusius (1526-1609), a central figure in the spread of the potato in Europe, in 1601 describes a plant with stems up to 7.5 feet (2.28m) and 10.5 feet (3.2m) long, while also noting that the plants were harvested in November. Redcliffe Salaman writing in the 1940s was adamant that the length of time needed to transport potatoes to Spain from Chile would have resulted in the death of any tubers. Following is a list of first early potato varieties available from the featured seed merchants on this website (Click Links For Details): Accent – Great resistance to garden pests. With cutting you can expect to plant 14-16 individual “hills”. R.N. The president of the Royal Society, Sir Robert Southwell (1635-1702) was recorded in the minutes of a meeting of 13 December, 1693 as stating that his grandfather had ‘brought potatoes into Ireland who had them from Sir Walter Rawleigh after his return from Virginia’. Copyright © 2021 History Publications Ltd, Unit 9, 78 Furze Road, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland | Tel. Early varieties are recommended for beginners as you will avoid the troublesome potato blight season. Europe’s imperial glory is only a distant memory. In his Catalogue of 1599 Gerard added the term ‘bastard potatoes’ to distinguish the potato from the sweet potato, and added that he had received potatoes from their natural home, Virginia. Davidson, ‘The History of the potato and its progress in Ireland’ in Journal of the Department of Agriculture, XXXIII, no.1 (1937). They rode over the tubers, in pursuit of the Inca leader Atahualpa and his fabled riches. Swift Another Very Fast Maturing First Early, About 12 To 14 Weeks.high Yields Of Good Flavoured, Uniform, Firm Fleshed Tubers. As to Ralegh’s voyages, only one touched the coast of Ireland on the return journey, and that at Smerwick, County Kerry, with the crew half-starved. Swiss physician, anatomist and botanist Caspar Bauhin (1560-1624), writing in 1620, also mentions that the potato was harvested in November and his potato drawings are similar to the species andigena. Blight Resistant Varieties available. The Irish Potato Famine is a harrowing time in history and some of you may not want to know more about Irish potato information, but it is important to learn about the history of Irish potatoes … In front of her, carefully stashed in plastic fruit boxes, is a selection of very well-chitted seed potatoes which, one-by-one, are being gently lifted from the pile, their brittle pink shoots and their spidery white roots tenderly disentangled, before theyre lovingly placed individually into half-filled pots and covered with a nicely fibrous compost. people both in Ireland and around the world. Whatever about Cavendish bringing potatoes to England, we can be quite certain that he was not responsible for introducing the potato to mainland Europe, since more than eight months before, on 26 January 1588, Clusius had received from the Prefect of Mons, two potato tubers which he duly planted. Seed Potatoes on Sale at Best Online Prices. Clusius had visited Spain in 1564 and studied many of the new plants, which had been brought from the New World, but he does not mention the potato. The introduction of the tuber as a curiosity from Spain through Waterford, seems highly plausible. He refers to the Indian name of the potato, which he incorrectly spelt ‘papus’. The potato in contrast was only cultivated in the most inaccessible of places. This implies that potatoes were being grown in Spain for a number of years in order to build up stocks. Drake was not the only Englishman to come into contact with the potato at an early date. There are three main types of potato to grow, named according to when you plant and harvest them: first earlies, second earlies and maincrop. In the Phoenix Park, the OPW’s walled kitchen garden (despite its beautiful bone-structure) is looking pretty much like any other vegetable garden at this time of year: forlorn, frostbitten and rather uninviting. A spot in Cork harbour between Carrigaline and Crosshaven, where he is reputed to have landed is still known as Drake’s Pool. Click on the green arrow above to get your PROMO CODE and to find out more about our members benefits. This would suggest a point of origin in Spain itself, or that a Spaniard was responsible for introducing the potato to Ireland. Young people and activism: ‘You can’t stand by and hope everything’s going to be okay’, Ireland’s mental health pandemic: From crisis to emergency, Frequently asked questions about your digital subscription, Specially selected and available only to our subscribers, Exclusive offers, discounts and invitations, Explore the features of your subscription, Carefully curated selections of Irish Times writing, Sign up to get the stories you want delivered to your inbox, An exact digital replica of the printed paper. Receive £5.00 off your first purchase or FREE Vegetable seeds when you shop with us for the first time! The key factor governing the time for planting all potatoes is the date of the last frost in your area. She fixes me with another sceptical look. The humble potato was domesticated in the South American Andes some 8,000 years ago. “No, not as long as you use some basic common sense. The potato was often referred to as An Spáinneach or An Spáinneach Geal [the white, or kind hearted Spaniard] in its early history. The Irish Potato Market. "I'd say Lady Christl, without a doubt," she says. " In August 1585 the colonists arrived in what is now eastern North Carolina, in Dare County, in Croatan Sound. Yet another reason, you might think, for traditionalists to wince. DO:Start planning this year’s vegetable plot, order seed (catalogues or online), weed polytunnel crops, sort through stored vegetables and discard any rotten/frost-damaged ones. Published in 1597, his celebrated Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes, containing more than 1,000 species, became the first plant catalogue, and the first to incorporate a picture of the potato. The sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) which is unrelated to the potato, grew in lowland areas all around the Caribbean, at the time of the Spanish conquests. “In fact, it speeds things up. First early seed potatoes need to be planted at a depth of 10cm with at least 30cm between each potato. One example of a tuber ideally suited for early season planting is the Irish Cobbler, an irregularly shaped variety with light brown skin. Wash them, dry them and then store them carefully, loosely covered and in the coolest place you can find – it must be frost-free, though – where the mice can’t get at them. Discover the best new potatoes to grow and eat, below. Potatoes may well have formed part of the valuable haul taken from Cartagena itself or from the cargoes of plundered ships. The story of mashed potatoes takes 10,000 years and traverses the mountains of Peru and the Irish countryside; it features cameos from Thomas Jefferson and a … Drake fulfilled his commission, capturing Santiago in the Cape Verde Islands and taking and plundering the cities of Cartagena, St Augustine in Florida, and San Domingo in Hispaniola. Hostilities with Spain had broken out once more, and he was ordered to cause as much damage as possible to the Spanish overseas empire. It has been argued that the first potatoes brought to Europe came from Chile (subspecies tuberosum), because they had been adapted to form tubers in the long summer days of southern temperate latitudes and would feel at home in Europe where the day length was similar. He tried to visit Virginia on his return from his disastrous venture in Guyana in 1595, but failed. Certainly this would reconcile a number of statements, although we can only speculate whether this actually happened. Bred by the Scottish Research Institute (scri.ac.uk), and scientifically proven to have lots of what the Japanese call umami (one of the five basic taste sensations), seed potatoes of this Phureja variety it seems are not to be got here, for love nor money. The gardens are open daily from 10am to 4pm, Next week: Meeda and Brian choosing what vegetable varieties to grow, from this years seed catalogues. However, there is not a shred of evidence to support such an assumption. Fine Edwardian in landmark Limerick terrace for €850k, I got rid of 95% of my stuff, almost everything I’ve ever owned. Varieties Grown Here Cavendish and his crew took aboard supplies and ‘a number of bagges of potato rootes’. Sir Walter Ralegh-did he really introduce the potato to Ireland? Although there may be more substance to the suggestion of an introduction by Drake, there is simply no proof. Bred in Northern Ireland it is an all-purpose potato with firm flesh and a good flavour. Once the shoots have nudged their way up above the compost, they’ll immediately be put (but not planted) out in the polytunnel, where they’ll be protected from any harsh night-time frosts with a double-layer of fleece (she takes this off during the daytime). It seems improbable that the potato was introduced around this time as it had only just been introduced to Spain, whose conquistadors had known of its existence for more than a quarter century, and at a time when it was not yet known in England. White flesh and white skins, with firmer skins than the first early new season variety. Further voyages were made in 1587 and 1590, but no subsequent attempt at colonising was made until 1606. The sweet potato was not only more accessible but also exclusive, as it could only be grown in the climate of Spain. Even its gardeners, Meeda Downey and Brian Quinn, have temporarily abandoned it to busy themselves elsewhere, planting young sapling trees in the park. It also contained a large amount of folklore. Onions along with shallots, leeks, chives and garlic, belong to the Allium family, which including wild varieties has some 325 members. Generally Queens begin to replace Premier or Home Guard in the market place in late June and become the mainstay of the Irish potato market for the summer. First earlies are ideal for planting in potato grow bags or large Could a Covid-19 smell test help bring coronavirus under control? These potatoes are Nicky Kyle’s early “earlies”, which are destined for the polytunnel in the expectation of a spring harvest. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. As for an introduction by Ralegh himself, it is a myth, which is still quoted by historians to this day. area are based on CSO data, while percentages for individual potato varieties are based on surveys of growers. Such tubers could well have been introduced as curiosities by Drake or one of his crew. Indeed, the effect of his triumph in the West Indies was almost cataclysmic. Swift potatoes are the earliest of the first early potatoes and they are ready for harvest, if conditions are correct, 10 weeks after the seed potatoes are planted. Click Here to go to the Personal Histories page. Given the fact that the Spanish were the first Europeans to encounter the potato in the New World, and the first to cultivate it on the European mainland, it should come as no surprise if the Spanish were responsible for bringing the first tubers to our shores. They'll be ready for harvest in around ten weeks from planting. to build an extensive database reflecting Irish lives,
It was therefore, he argued, the less favourable andigena that was brought to Europe from Colombia. Under royal patent granted by Elizabeth I in 1584 to Ralegh, a group of colonists left for North America in April of that year, to map out a route and prepare the way for the main party, which was to follow. Delicious flavour as a salad crop, but can be grown on to produce baking sized potatoes. If potatoes came from Virginia in 1586 they must already have been on Sir Francis Drakes’ ships and he may have acquired them from the sack of Cartagena on the coast of modern day Colombia. Ralegh gave up his patent in March 1590, having never set foot in Virginia. Columbus and his men never saw a tuber of solanum tuberosum, nor did the conquistador Hernán Cortéz (1485-1547) encounter the plant in Mexico. Only save from the best, most healthy looking plants, grown outdoors the previous year from certified seed potatoes , and make sure there’s no blight, scabs, bruises or dark patches on the tubers. It has since been proven by W.G. Therein lies the dilemma, since it is not andigena that we see every day on our dinner tables, but tuberosum. You may also opt for the Norland, a red-skinned potato that is resistant to scab. But they don’t have the pleasure of owning their own polytunnel like some other lucky GYOers do. King Henry VIII, son-in-law of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, was particularly fond of them believing they possessed aphrodisiac qualities, which could provide him with that all-elusive heir. That Drake did later come into contact with the potato is undisputed. The potato must therefore have been introduced to Spain between 1565 and 1570. The ancient empires of South America have long since vanished. Ever since passing through the Straits of Magellan, Cavendish had attacked Spanish settlements and shipping from the Chilean coast up to Mexico. Does Green Reit buyer have tax-back case? Having completed his renowned second circumnavigation of the globe in November 1580, he was honoured by a visit from Queen Elizabeth I, who dined with him on board his ship, the Golden Hind (formerly the Pelican), which was lying at Deptford in the Thames estuary, but there is no record of potatoes appearing on the menu. So why then is Virginia associated with the introduction of the potato into Britain and Ireland? Fast Delivery “ It’s extra early, with lovely, waxy, yellow potatoes, very tasty. First Early Potatoes Plant first early potatoes between the end of February and late May. £5.00 OFF YOUR FIRST PURCHASE. 2nd Early Orla Seed Potatoes Grown in Ireland for Irish Market. To renew a subscription please login first, The Potato Digger by Paul Henry. The sweet potato was introduced into Spain almost immediately after the earliest voyages. The Introduction of the Potato into Ireland - History Ireland Look for varieties of ‘first early’ potatoes, which are the quickest growing of the lot. They could only tuberise in the shorter days of the European autumn, and grow in milder regions of Ireland, Spain, Italy, etc.. We know this from the evidence provided by contemporary botanists. Common sense is the best guide to growing spuds. The OPW’s Victorian kitchen garden is in the grounds of the Phoenix Park Visitor Centre, beside the Phoenix Park Café and Ashtown Castle. Nicky’s are what you might call contraband, smuggled over from the UK a couple of years ago and lovingly overwintered as seed potatoes ever since. Organic gardener Nicky Kyle does, however, which is why mid-January finds her sitting toasty-warm at her kitchen table, a bin-load of potting compost to one side and a neat stack of 2-litre plastic pots to the other, while the smell of freshly-baked bread (I kid you not) wafts through the air from the nearby Aga. The English herbalist John Gerard (1545-1612), was indebted to Clusius for information regarding the potato. Second earlies (also called ‘new’ potatoes) are hot on their heels, taking a few more weeks to mature. These potatoes could in all likelihood have been confused with the plants from Virginia brought back by Harriot. Cavendish like Drake returned to England around Cape Horn, and arrived in Plymouth on 9-10 September 1588, with only one of his ships, the Desire, and much plunder. Of course the potato was known and its cultivation well understood in Munster at a very early date. Given that the potato thrived in Ireland from a very early date (but not in Europe), it was probably solanum tuberosum rather than andigena that was introduced. The evidence available points to two early introductions of the potato into Europe. But then Nicky Kyle is both a non-. John Hawkins (1532-1595), English naval administrator, commander and expert seaman also took aboard ‘hennes potatoes and pines’ at Santa Fé in Venezuela during 1564, but again given the location these must have been sweet potatoes. Although Ralegh was mayor of Youghal in 1588-89, he didn’t spend much time in the country. If Ralegh was in a position to distribute potatoes at an early date, he must surely have got these potatoes from England, since he was never in Virginia and as already mentioned, Solanum tuberosum is not native to Virginia. “I’d say Lady Christl, without a doubt,” she says. A second contingent of colonists was sent to North America, departing on 9 April 1585. What will €895,000 buy in Dublin, Hong Kong, France, Italy and Spain? traditionalist and something of a potatophile, with a near-boffinish knowledge of the thousands of different varieties available. IT’S COLD, it’s dark, it’s wet, it’s windy . Once Nicky has finished potting up the individual tubers in mid-January, she’ll lightly water them, place them on a sheet of polythene somewhere cool but frost-free, and then wait. Like an early-season Elba for eating quality. Most varieties hold the RHS Award of Garden Merit (AGM). However, Robert Southwell’s statement is rather dubious to say the least. “It’s vital that you don’t disturb the rootball at this stage,” she warns, “as otherwise it’ll set them back at least a few weeks”. We stock an extensive range of first earlies, second earlies, maincrop, and late maincrop … A. Bourke, ‘The Visitation of God’? February), will they then be planted in the polytunnel (18” apart into flat, raised beds). He mentions a stringy tuberous plant called the ‘openawk’, with which the potato has often been confused right up until the nineteenth century, hence the association of the potato with both Virginia and Ralegh. Only when the shoots are 5” to 6” high (roundabout mid-. After that, it’s a question of vigilant frost-protection and watering – “but don’t saturate them”. The first, into Spain about 1570 and the second into England between 1585-1590. It's extra early, with lovely, waxy, yellow potatoes, very tasty. W.D. Finally, don’t waste your time searching for the Mayan Gold potato, the one that Nicky says is a potato to die for. They are recorded as holding land in Cork prior to 1609. This variety has a white skin and flesh and a notably floury tecture. After eight weeks, Nicky can’t help digging gently with her fingers to see if she can fish out a couple of the bigger ones. SOW:(In small amounts, in gentle heat, to move to a cooler but frost-free spot before planting out in polytunnel from late-February onwards, using fleece at night for frost-protection): Sugar pea (Delikett), broad beans, carrots, oriental salad mixes, Mizuna, rocket, Swiss chard, spinach, Ragged Jack kale (for baby leaves), lettuce, white turnips, leeks and onions. Variety Roundup 'Norland' is a great-tasting, early red-skinned potato. Irish potato production has decreased from 332,000 hectares in 1850 to just over 9,000 hectares. the potato and the Great Irish Famine (Dublin 1994). However, given the lack of historical evidence it would be unwise to dismiss the possibility of an introduction from England. However, the first venture failed and the colonists returned to England in July 1586 with Sir Francis Drake who was returning after privateering in the West Indies. These names indicate when the potatoes will be ready to eat, and also give you an idea of how much space you will need, how closely and when they can be planted. Types of Potatoes to Try Planting. And then wait. giving them a chance to be heard, remembered and to
Sir Robert’s grandfather and great-uncle were the sons of Richard Southwell of Spixworth in Norfolk and his wife Alice Cornwallis. In Shakespeare’s The Merry Wives of Windsor, when Sir John Falstaff, thinking he is about to bed two women, cries ‘Let the sky rain potatoes’, he is more than likely referring to sweet potatoes. Irish Cobbler sold out no Early Season Potatoes 7690 Mid-sized round to oblong tubers with a smooth creamy texture suitable for baking or boiling. For seed potatoes of some of the early varieties try Mr Middleton Garden Shop (mrmiddleton.com). Gerard was a popular man who was often presented not only with rare plants and seeds from different parts of the world but also with offers to supervise the gardens of noblemen. What on earth makes you think I’m 75?’, My first year as an ex-TD: ‘I looked for jobs, but I didn’t make the grade’, Covid-19: How to look after yourself if you catch the virus, 10 quick ways to get your garden in shape right now, Ireland’s catalytic converter thieves: ‘They’re like Formula 1 mechanics’. Salaman has suggested that the potato was introduced in the last quarter of the sixteenth century. They should start sprouting by Christmas.”. So who did bring the potato to Ireland and when? Drake did not return to Europe until 26 September, 1580, nearly two years later. These ships brought back various Spanish ‘prize ships’ and also called at Virginia on the return to England. On 16 March, 1587, Thomas Cavendish (1560-1592) English navigator and leader of the third circumnavigation of the globe, stopping at St Mary Island, near Concepción, southern Chile, found ‘cades of straw filled with potato rootes, which were very good to eat, ready made up in the storehouses for the Spaniards, against they should come for their tribute’. Traditionally Irish people like a “floury” potato with medium-high dry matter. It is hoped
The potato could not therefore have been growing in Virginia as Gerard states. Don’t follow them with tomatoes either – Nicky suggests courgettes, cucumbers or melons. There needs to be at least 60 to 70cm left between each row to give the potato plants enough room to grow and expand. No mention whatsoever was made of potatoes on their return. John Gerard, from the frontispiece to the first edition of his Herbal (1597, but here dated 1598), with a potato spray in his left hand. The ‘venerous roots’, imported from Spain, were a popular feature of many English banquets during the sixteenth century. With firmer skins than the first time a near-boffinish knowledge of the potato into Europe crop, in. La Sangre in Seville was buying potatoes as part of the Inca leader Atahualpa his! Fleshed tubers tuberosum in the Herball, that the potato ’ s association with a near-boffinish knowledge of Inca... 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