The unit's instruction manual provides additional details on the calibration of sensors.   Consider taking readings at several different locations around the oven. Conversely, discharging below a minimum voltage can also damage the battery. All data is automatically logged to a file for later retrieval to a PC. Washington, DC 20210 The sample counter has a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Thank you for visiting our site. There are various factors to consider when sampling for biological agents, such as: method of dispersion for the agent, purpose of the sampling (e.g., to identify the agent, determine extent of contamination, confirm decontamination, etc. Figure 1. The Ludlum Model 2000 scalar with 43-10 sample counter is capable of counting samples for α particle emissions. This can be done using an electronic calibration system with a high-flow cell. A unique absorbance wavelength must be identified to distinguish one chemical from another. Sampling and analysis for biological agents is a rapidly growing field. The reagents in the ampoules react with chemical agent vapors to produce a color change. Wipes and sponges are often used because they can sample larger surface areas and have a higher collection efficiency compared to swabs. The worldwide market report of Force Gauge and Torque Meters comprised by Regal Intelligence is based on the year 2020. An electronic signature is produced for each ion, which gives an indication of the type and relative concentration of agent present. Consult the instruction manual before calibration, and ensure that the calibration gas is introduced at the proper pressure and flow rate, using the appropriate regulator and adaptors. Contact the HRT for more details. Note the manufacturer’s limitations of use. The CorTemp™ personal heat stress monitoring system uses an ingestible temperature sensor that is swallowed by the person being monitored. Induced currents from RF exposure can be measured using a clamp-on induced current meter. To ensure accurate readings, a duct traverse should not be taken within three duct diameters of any elbows, branches, fans or transitions due to turbulent airflow in these locations. Remove the battery pack and install the tube plugs into the ends of the twin-tube assembly. The mercury adsorbed onto the gold surface changes the resistance of current flow. PCR can be performed in a laboratory, or in the field with semi-portable instrumentation. Before bringing monitoring equipment or other electrical devices into an area with the potential for an explosion, always check the Class and Division number marked on the instrument.  Use only the type of battery specified on the safety approval label, and replace batteries in a nonhazardous area. To the extent possible, gross decontamination should be performed onsite. These instruments can typically be set to count a sample for a specified time. Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Drugs, see OSHA's Safety and Health Topics Page for updated information. The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. Force gauges are typically sized and specified by several common parameters which are shown below. With the flow hood, the user can measure air volume, check HVAC system balance, verify air flow distribution within and between rooms, and in combination with other data, estimate the percent of outdoor air being supplied to a space. The instrument manual includes a table listing the IP and response factor for a variety of common chemicals. The M9 paper detects the presence of liquid nerve and blister agents by turning a reddish color. Portable handheld radiation spectroscopy instruments allow the user to identify radionuclides. Special precautions such as PPE and/or other work practices are also necessary to prevent exposure when working with biological agents. A force gauge can be either digital or mechanical, and they do a great job … This meter can be used to warn the user that he/she has entered a radiation area that is above background radiation levels. The types discussed include the following: Photoionization detectors (PIDs) are used for nonspecific detection of a variety of chemicals, particularly hydrocarbons. The gauges may be mounted to a test stand for even greater control and consistent results in repetitive testing applications. We supply a wide range of grips and fixtures for test stands. Optics focus laser light into a sensing volume. Relative humidity conditions above 80 percent may result in readings which are higher than the actual dust concentration.  Follow the manual for any necessary adjustments. The word gauge means a measurement, a thickness, an in-between distance (as in railroad tracks), or a resulting number of units per certain parameter (a number of loops in an inch of fabric or a number of … Calibration against a known standard is required. Each OSHA region is also equipped with a single APD 2000 unit. The SLTC offers contracting services for analysis of fungi, bacteria (such as Legionella), and endotoxin. Human response to vibration is dependent on several factors including the frequency, amplitude, direction, point of application, time of exposure, clothing and equipment, body size, body posture, body tension, and composition. The use of weighting networks gives a single number as a measure of vibration exposure (i.e., units of vibration) and is expressed in meters per second squared (m/s2). Most survey meters have either gas filled detectors or scintillation detectors. Swabs may be used dry or wetted with a buffer solution. Low battery packs should be charged for at least six hours. During the PCR cycle, DNA-specific "probes" with fluorescent dyes are attached to the DNA sample which allows detection. The benefit of using a flow hood is that accurate measurements with a high degree of precision can be quickly obtained without the necessity of measuring grille sizes and conducting repeated velometer measurements over the face of the diffuser or grille. Alpha particles have very low penetrating power and travel only a few centimeters in air and will not penetrate the dead outer layer of skin. Normal air contains about 20.9 percent oxygen. They can also be used in a dry or wet fashion. Force measurements for ergonomic assessment, Handheld power tools, bearings, gear trains, housings, walls, Screening, spot measurements for air contaminants, Dust monitors (particle or respirable aerosol monitors), Mines, sandblasting, road construction, dusty operations, indoor air quality, Combustible gas (LEL), oxygen (O2), with specific toxic gas sensors, Confined spaces, underground construction, sewers, Industrial facilities, electroplating operations, Toxic gas sensor, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, Combustion sources, particularly from propane fuel, Toxic gas sensor, chlorine and chlorine dioxide, Bleaching and disinfecting operations, plastics manufacture, chemical synthesis, other industrial operations, Industrial refrigeration, fertilizer, animal feed lots, Semiconductor manufacture, agricultural pesticides, Garages, warehouses, other combustion sources, indoor air quality, Indoor air quality, as a surrogate for other indoor source pollutants, Area surveys to determine locations with highest concentrations, waste anesthetic gases, fumigants, indoor air, leaks, spills, Area surveys to determine locations with highest concentrations, indoor air, leaks, spills, Foundries, furnaces, ovens and outdoor work locations, Nuclear plants, nuclear waste, laboratory  and medical settings. There are two kinds of force gauges today: mechanical and digital force gauges. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide can all produce a low reading for the gas of interest if present in the air being sampled due to quenching by these non-ionizable gases. Please contact the OSHA Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. The HandECount is a battery or AC powered sample counter used for determining the α and β activity present in a sample. The sampling bag is connected to the outlet from a portable sampling pump set to a calibrated flow rate such as 0.05 liters per minute (50 cubic centimeters per minute). Conducting a single test with one or more tubes takes two to five minutes to complete. The signal response must be multiplied by the response factor to quantify the concentration of the contaminant of interest. Dry Filter Units (DFU): Two units. The limits of detection depend on the particular detector tube. OSHA does not have standards concerning vibration exposure. Where more than one airborne contaminant is present, the instrument may not distinguish one from the other. Spectra from the GR-135N can be downloaded to a computer for analysis and printing. Electronic personal dosimeters are used to measure the dose received by an individual. The HandECount will report both α and β counts for a sample. The papers come in a roll and are adhesive-backed. It may be necessary to dry the saturator felt by installing a freshly charged battery pack without adding alcohol. Generally, use of these detection systems will be limited to specially trained and equipped personnel at the SLTC or other specially trained and equipped OSHA personnel. As with IMS detectors, SAW instruments will not allow detection of most chemical agents below IDLH levels. In most cases a calibration check is sufficient, in which the instrument is "zeroed" in fresh air (such as an office environment), then the calibration gas is applied, and if the reading matches the concentration of the span gas, full calibration is unnecessary. The dial rotates 360-degrees for tarring. The following sections contain a brief discussion of various types of instruments that may be used for heat and heat stress monitoring. The following equipment is maintained by the HRT for use in chemical agent detection: NOTE: The HRT also serves as the coordinator for OSHA's SRTs and can provide additional assistance and technical information regarding chemical warfare agent detection. This monitoring process is greatly simplified by using a multigas monitor containing sensors for oxygen, LEL, and the relevant toxic gases. HHAs are under scrutiny due to limitations on sensitivity and specificity; i.e., high rates of false-negative and false-positive results. Some HHA systems come with an electronic reader to aid in detecting the colorimetric change. PIDs are calibrated using a reference gas, usually isobutylene. Furthermore, with some ingenuity, the end pieces … Interfering substances that will produce a false positive include petroleum products, antifreeze, and insecticides. The charged molecules are collected on a charged surface, which generates a current that is directly proportional to the concentration of the chemical in the air being sampled. Colorimetric tubes are made by several manufacturers, and their function is essentially the same. If low, replace the batteries as appropriate. Before use, consult the user manual to identify interfering chemicals of concern. The monitors are available through the Agency Loan Equipment Program ALEP and the Agency Technical Equipment Procurement Program (ATEPP). Routine maintenance includes periodic replacement of filters and regeneration of the gold film sensor to remove mercury after use of the instrument. Direct-reading instruments or monitors (also called real-time instruments or monitors) provide information at the time of sampling, thus enabling rapid decision-making. Most detector tubes only give near-instantaneous measurements, and thus will not reflect time-weighted average (TWA) levels of the hazardous substances present. Detector tubes are obtained through the CTC AESP. Overpressurization can damage the sensor. Sudden physical exertion in an oxygen deficient environment may lead to loss of consciousness. The amount of light reaching the detector is proportional to the number of particles passing through the detection chamber. Occupational Safety and Health Administration If monitoring for combustible atmospheres other than the reference gas (i.e., calibration gas) consult the manufacturer’s instructions and correction charts/curves to determine a more accurate reading of the true gas concentration. Infrared (IR) analyzers are useful for measuring a broad range of inorganic and organic chemicals in air.  Combustible gas meters measure flammable gas concentration as a percentage of the LEL of the calibrated gas. The alcohol vapor becomes super-saturated and condenses on the particles in a cooled condenser. Each chip contains 10 capillaries filled with a reagent system. The lamp may need to be cleaned more frequently when used in a high temperature, high humidity environment. A bioaerosol monitor, usually a two-stage sampler, is also a multi-orifice cascade impactor. Surface/Bulk Sampling: Various wipe, sponge, and swab sampling kits. Additionally, if the diffuser area is known or measured, an accurate average linear air velocity can be calculated. The monitor should be calibrated at the altitude at which it will be used. Therefore, oxygen content must always be determined before taking combustible gas readings.  Flammable gases and vapors are tested second because the risk of fire or explosion is typically more life-threatening than exposure to toxic air contaminants. Detector tubes should not be used when they are cold. Overcharging, by charging for too long a time period at a high charge rate, can damage the battery. Much of the equipment and instrumentation discussed in this chapter is available from the CTC through the Agency Loan Equipment Program (ALEP), which may be found on the OSHA Intranet. Use of these tools is overseen by the Salt Lake Technical Center (SLTC) Health Response Team (HRT) and OSHA’s Specialized Response Teams (SRTs). RF meters must be selected based on the frequency of the radiation that is to be measured. The sensitivity appears to be the highest around 8-16 Hz (Hertz or cycles per second), so the weighting networks will generally emphasize this range. Consult the instrument equipment manual to determine what field calibration is needed. Most meters are calibrated to measure oxygen concentrations between 0 and 25 percent by volume in air. Handheld mercury analyzers can be used for compliance sampling and for source and leak detection. Size and weight - how practical will the instrument be for short-term breathing zone measurements?  Will a cart be needed for moving the instrument around? Along with qualitative information, this report includes the quantitative analysis of … Flywheels, belts, cylinders, lathes, etc. End users should always follow the owner's manual and manufacturer recommendations regarding the specific operation and maintenance of the equipment being used. Annually or after any repair or maintenance work, send detector tube pumps to the CTC for calibration (volume verification). The choice of appropriate shielding for ionizing radiation depends on the type and energy of the radiations to be shielded. The Ludlum Model 3030 is a dual alpha/beta scalar used for sample counting. The vibration will generally be measured along three (x, y and z) axes. However, SAW detectors are less susceptible to false positive alarms from interfering substances. The meter must be placed on line power and the gold film sensor regenerated at elevated temperature. When multiple sensors are present on the same instrument, the right gas mix is necessary to ensure that the span gases for the different sensors do not adversely affect other sensors on the same instrument. The C-2 Chemical Agent Detector Kit is used by the Canadian Military for detecting chemical agent vapors. For chemicals which are not preprogrammed into the instrument, the response factor should be determined by exposing the detector to a known concentration of the gas of interest, by preparing a bag sample (i.e., using a nonreactive Tedlar® bag). digital force gauges which feature giant,easy-to-read LCD displays and provide RS-232,Digimatic and analog output. Data obtained from direct-reading monitors can be used to evaluate existing health and/or safety programs and to assure proper selection of personal protective equipment (PPE), engineering controls and work practices. Vacuum methods can be used when it is necessary to sample very large surface areas or surfaces which are porous or irregular such as carpeting, where it is impractical to use swabs or wipes. Bioaerosol meters must be flow-calibrated before use, using the same type of sampling media in the sampling train as will be used in the field. Are there filters available to protect the instrument in these situations? Oxygen sensors are discussed first, followed by combustible gas (explosibility) sensors, and lastly, toxic gas sensors. Where multiple chemicals may be present in the environment, interference can be a problem. An example of a portable GC is the MINICAMS Continuous Air Monitor. A peak hold button captures peak readings. The results of up to 50 measurements can be stored in a data recorder integrated in the analyzer. The GR-135N has a sodium iodide detector capable of identifying radionuclides, a GM detector for measuring exposure rate, and a solid state neutron detector. These low flow methods have the advantage of being small and portable; however, due to their low sample volume they will have a relatively high limit of detection. … These types of instruments are discussed in other sections of the Technical Manual. HEPA Vacuums: Two units with filter socks and other supplies specifically for use with biological agent sampling. PCR is performed real-time through detection by fluorescence. The sensitivity of IR analyzers can be sufficient to quantify chemical concentrations below the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) for many chemicals. Should a different gas sensor need to be installed, return the instrument to the CTC for a change of sensors. Most electronic dosimeters measure the deep dose equivalent (Hp(10)) to γ radiation. However, there is no convenient or practical method for cultivation and enumeration of viral particles. Hazardous areas - can the instrument be used in electrical classified areas? Alarms can be set for accumulated doses and for dose rates for both Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). This information is not a comprehensive resource for specific types of instrumentation, nor is it intended to replace the owner’s manual. The following equipment is maintained by the HRT for use in biological agent sampling and analysis: NOTE: The HRT also serves as the coordinator for OSHA's biological SRT and can provide additional assistance and technical information regarding biological agent detection. Sampling wand - does the unit have a sampling hose and probe to allow for remote sampling, or to allow breathing zone measurements for larger instruments? A complete assessment of exposure to vibration requires the measurement of acceleration in well-defined directions, frequencies and duration of exposure. Such applications may be important in assessing ventilation controls or conducting IAQ investigations. The SLTC coordinates analysis of biological samples by contracted laboratories. IMS detectors are used mainly to detect nerve, blister, and blood agents. Take care not to overfill the unit. The instrument compares the spectrum to a library of spectra and provides the user with a list of likely sources. Submicrometer particles are grown with alcohol or another liquid vapor as they pass through a heated saturator lined with alcohol-soaked felt. They are often used to measure the amount of radioactive material in air samples, wipe samples, and nasal swabs. Military Detection Papers/Kits: M8/C8 paper, M9 paper, M256A1 kits, and C-2 kits. The CTC applies a calibration sticker which includes the due date for the next calibration. The meter contains a cesium iodide scintillator-photodiode detector capable of measuring γ and X radiation. Consult the user manual regarding potential interferences. Calibration factors are voltage dependant and instructions for calculating the calibration factors are in the E-PERM manual provided by the manufacturer. High molecular weight alcohols can burn out the meter's filaments. Generally, synthetic swab tips with plastic shafts are recommended because they are not of biological origin and will not interfere with DNA-based detection systems. In drying ovens or unusually hot locations, solvent vapors with high boiling points may condense in the sampling lines and produce erroneous (low) readings. Section VII describes instrumentation for detecting nonionizing (e.g., radiofrequency) radiation. The following video will demonstrate a force gauge and how it works. Force gauges are used in all types of testing applications. Beta particles can travel several meters in air and can penetrate several millimeters into the skin. The infrared spectrum typically used in infrared analysis ranges from the far infrared region at 400 cm-1 (25 micrometers) to the near infrared region 4,000 cm-1 (2.5 micrometers). Also, perform a pump leak test as shown in Figure 2. PIDs use a high energy ultraviolet (UV) light source to ionize chemicals in an airstream. Never kink, stretch, pinch or otherwise damage the cables. Thermoanemometers can be used to monitor the effectiveness of ventilation systems and local exhaust systems. As shown in Figure 1, ensure that the directional arrow is oriented toward the pump. The CTC arranges for annual calibration. Detector tubes can also be used for compliance sampling relative to TWA (8-hour time-weighted average), STEL (short-term exposure limit) and Ceiling limits. Beta particles should be shielded using an appropriate thickness of low atomic mass (low-Z) materials such as aluminum or plastics (e.g., Plexiglas®). In extraordinary circumstances, gas concentrations above the Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) may give a false reading indicating a noncombustible atmosphere; be aware that if air is suddenly introduced into such a space, the atmosphere can quickly become explosive. Section III discusses direct-reading instruments used for assessing chemical and particulate-type air contaminants. The DNA from the sample is obtained and reproduced rapidly to produce a quantity that is detectable by the instrumentation. For push and pull forces, an easy-to-use force gauge is needed. Use only the type of battery specified on the safety approval label, and replace batteries in a nonhazardous area. After regeneration, wait half an hour before taking readings to allow the sensor to equilibrate to room temperature. This procedure usually involves checking the zero of the instrument. Rechargeable batteries are most reliable when used at least every two to three weeks. Also known as nephelometers, these instruments are used to monitor particulate matter such as dusts, smokes, mists, and fumes. Consult the CTC if there is reason to suspect that a pump may not be operating properly prior to its scheduled calibration due date. These HHA tests rely on an antigen/antibody reaction to identify the suspect agent. Ventilation smoke will also help determine whether supply air turbulence near a hood may compromise the hood’s effectiveness. The instrument has a silver-activated zinc sulfide [ZnS(Ag)] coated scintillation detector capable of discriminating between α and β radiations. There are several techniques and instruments available that will allow responders to perform a generic detection for biological agents. Calibrate immediately before testing at or near the temperature of the tested atmosphere. Vibration-measuring instruments have a frequency-weighting network as an option. Condensation nuclei counters take particles too small to be easily detected, enlarge them to a detectable size, and then count them. Nationally Recognized Testing Labs test and approve electrical equipment for use in hazardous locations (see 29 CFR 1910.7)  Approved equipment, sometimes referred to as intrinsically safe, must be marked with the Class and Division number for which it is approved.  Never bring portable monitoring instruments into a hazardous location without first confirming that the instrument is approved for use in that environment. Applications exist in research and development, laboratory, quality, production and field … Some weaknesses of PCR to consider are the following: potential interferences from other substances in the sample, reagent stability, and sample viability, because PCR will detect the presence of both live and dead organisms, but will not distinguish between the two. After a sufficient period of time (usually 24 hours or more), visible growth can be examined to detect the presence of the biological agent(s). Calibration and battery maintenance are discussed in Section II. As with swabs, synthetic materials are recommended to eliminate potential interference problems with detection systems. The Narda 8860 personal RF monitor is used to monitor occupational exposures to RF sources within the frequency range of 100 kilohertz (kHz) – 100 gigahertz (GHz). While the toxic gas sensors are interchangeable, these instruments are not easily serviced in the field. Some are a diffusive/dosimeter type which requires no pump. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Typical lamp energies are 9.5, 10.6, and 11.7 electron volts (eV). An example of colorimetric tubes designed specifically for chemical agents is the Dräger Civil Defense Simultest™ (CDS) Kit. For example, acetone in air absorbs IR at both 8.4 and 11.0 micrometers. Detector tubes normally have a shelf life of one to two years when stored at 25°C. A force gauge will use either kg or pounds to report it’s measurements. Essentially, a volume of air is drawn through a filter or deposited in another medium, and the captured particulates are then analyzed to identify biological agents. The QUESTemp™ II personal heat stress monitor is calibrated to the user's body temperature every time it is used or if the ambient temperature changes by 10°C (50ºF). PIDs may be configured with lamps of different energies. Contact the HRT for more details. PIDs are also affected by high humidity. Counting time can be set from 0.1–30 minutes. Meters typically have interchangeable probes for measuring electric and magnetic fields. When sampling in an environment where a single identified gas is known to be present, select the display name for that gas and the readout will be automatically corrected using the response factor for that gas. Each of these gauges will have their benefits, but you must make sure that your workers or employees can read the information from them. 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